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The Fall of the Kurdistan Republic in Mahabad, 1946

Zhirwan Werty
(Link to Author’s source)
Turkey- Sakarya
December 25, 2015

ala-komarIntroduction:
The Kurdistan Republic, centered in Mahabad located in the northwest of Iran, was formally announced on January 22th of 1946 by the Kurds headed by Qazi Muhammad, and was collapsed on Dec 15th of the same year by the Iranian forces directed by Qawam Saltana, Iranian Prime Minister of that time.  The Kurdistan Republic in Mahabad is marked as the most significant event of the history of the Kurds.  Even though the republic was short lived, it opened the door for entering another stage of the Kurdish struggle, especially the Kurds in Iran, to find a democratic way for gaining their rights.  The President of the republic, Qazi Muhammad, has been, arguably, the symbol of the Kurdish issue, not only in Iran but also in the other parts of Kurdistan in Iraq, Syrian and Turkey.  The aim of the republic was to get autonomy for the Kurds in Iran under a democratic Iranian government.  The main argument of this essay is that the withdrawal of the Soviet Union from Iran was the main factor that the republic of Kurdistan collapsed.  However, in order to understand the situation, I will briefly start with a historical background and the situation of Iran and the Kurds in Iran before the establishment of the republic because we cannot sufficiently understand the republic and its collapse unless we understand the background of the republic and the historical steps that pushed ahead for the establishment of the republic.  In this essay, therefore, I will first shortly explain the reasons that paved the way to the establishment of the republic and give a background about the major events that went on before the republic.  Then I will come to my main argument that is the withdrawal of the Soviet Union from Iran as the main factor of the republic’s collapse.  Surely there were other reasons that caused the collapse of the republic, but I would argue here that the Soviet Union withdrawal from Iran was the mother of other external and internal factors that caused the republic to fall.  So, here in this essay, any reason that is mentioned as internal or external reason to the fall of the republic should go back to or be based on the Soviet withdrawal from Iran.

Kurdish Nationalism in Iran:

Before the WWI, the Ottoman Empire was trying to expand their borders through Iran and they were interfering Iranian borders in the northwest of Iran (the Kurdistan part of Iran).  At that time Qajar Dynasty was ruling in Iran and it was weak, and the Ottomans tried to use the Kurdish tribes, who were Sunni believers, to revolt against the Qajar Dynasty.  The main aim of the Ottomans was to expand their borders.  Despite of the fact that the Kurdish tribes were getting help from outside to revolt, especially from the Ottomans, the sense of nationalism among the Kurds in Iran was weak, comparing to the other parts of Kurdistan.  And that is mainly because of the closeness of Kurdish Language to Persian Language.  The Kurdish and Persian languages are basically from one family.  Despite of that, there have been historical cultural shares between the Kurds and Persians.  Kurdish literature was dominated by Persian Language.  And this was seen not only in civil societal interactions but even in the formal press of the Kurdish political revolutions sometimes Persian Language has been used.  For example, in 1922 the formal newspaper of Sheikh Mahmood al-Barzinji in Sulaimanyah, North of Iraq, was partly published in Persian.

Despite of the weakness of Kurdish nationalism in Iran, there have been a number of Kurdish revolutions and uprisings against the Iranian government.  Simko Shikak’s revolution (1918-1930) has been one among the effective revolutions of the Kurds in Iran.  Some of these revolutions indeed had an Islamic background.  Therefore, when Reza Shah got power, overthrew the Qajars, and established Pahlavi Dynasty, one of his policies against the Kurds in Iran was to close any religious school that would inspire the Kurds to revolt against the government.

Reza Shah’s Policy against the Kurds

When Reza Shah gets power in Iran, he faces a lot of problems and one of them is the problem of the Kurds.  He at the same time visits Kamal Ataturk in 1934, and he was inspired by Ataturk to suppress the Kurds in Iran. Therefore, when he comes back to Iran from his visitation to Ataturk, he starts a policy that any Kurdish movement would be strongly suppressed by the government.  At the same time, the Kurdish tribal men had weapons and Shah had started to take weapons out of the hands of those tribes, as a step of his military reforms that he had started. Another policy of Shah against the Kurds was that Kurdish Language was totally forbidden.  Even Shah was denying the Kurds as a nation.  And according to nowadays proclamations, we can name these kinds of policies “genocide” because Shah was trying to remove the Kurdish culture and the Kurdish identity.[2]  Moreover, displacement of the Kurdish families from their lands (northwest of Iran) and moving them to the eastern and southern cities of Iran was another terrible policy of Shah against the Kurds.  This policy against the Kurds has been repeated by different regimes not only in Iran but also in other countries such as in Iraq during Saddam Hussein, the former dictator of Iraq.  Moreover, even there were no schools in the Kurdish part of Iran.  Evidences show that in all of the cities of Bana, Bokan, Sina, Mahabad, and Saqiz there had only been one primary school, which had only one class.  By the time of establishing the Kurdistan Republic in 1946, “98% of women and 95% of men in the Kurdish societies were illiterate.”[3]  So, mainly one of the policies of Shah was to make the Kurdish society a backward and uneducated society.  However, these policies of Shah against the Kurds in Iran did not stop the Kurdish uprisings.  The events of the time indeed paved the way to the establishment of the Kurdistan Republic because the Kurds were reacting and the Kurdish movements were taking place gradually in different northwestern areas of the country.

The Anglo-Soviet Invasion of Iran 1941:

During WWII, Iran was a very significant strategic country for USSR and Britain.  By invading Iran, these two huge powers were securing Iranian oil fields and ensuring supply lines for the USSR to fight against Axis powers.  So, between August 25th and September 17th of 1941, Britain and the USSR invaded Iran, which was known as the Anglo-Soviet Invasion of Iran.  The big powers displaced Reza Shah under the excuse that he is friendly with the Axes Powers.  And they replaced Muhammad, the son of Reza Shah.  At the same time, they divided the strategic lands of Iran between themselves.  The north part (Azerbaijan, Khwy, Slmas, Urmia to Miandwaw) was given to the USSR.  And the areas of Hamadan, Elam, Kirmanshah and Sina were given to Britain.  So, Mahabad was left between and there was a power vacuum in the area.  That power vacuum opened a very important door for the Kurds, and they immediately found the opportunity and took steps ahead.  These steps led to the establishment of the Kurdistan Republic in 1946.

Society for Revival of Kurdistan (SRK):

In 1942, a small educated group mostly from the middle class secretly formed a party known as the Society for Revival of Kurdistan (SRK).  It was a nationalist left-wing ideological party.  However, the party did not neglect religion and the three principles of the party were Islam, Kurdishness, and modernization.[4]  Qazi Muhammad later becomes the member of the party and in 1944 he becomes the Secretary General of the party.  After Qazi Muhammad became the head of the party, the party was consisted on three branches.  One branch was the left-wing foundation branch, the second branch was from the religious men such as Qazi Muhammad, and the last one was mostly consisted of the tribal men.  The Kurds had good relations with the Soviet Union, and simultaneously the Azeri people in the north were to establish the Azeri Republic under the help of the Soviet Union.  The Kurdish leaders, like Qazi Muhammad, were inspired to take another step and declare the Kurdish republic in their part.  The SRK was changed to the Kurdistan Democratic Party of Iran (KDPI) in 1945 under the pressure of the Soviet Union.  The SRK was aiming to unite all the parts of Kurdistan and that was threatening Turkey because there were Kurds in Turkey too.  At the same time, Turkey was close to the USSR.  Therefore, Qazi Muhammad changed the SRK to KDPI aiming for autonomy in Kurdistan part of Iran and democracy for Iran.  The Kurds, while demanding autonomy for Kurdistan and democracy for Iran, might be inspired by the Tehran Declaration of the end of 1943 that was signed by the USA, the USSR, and Britain.  The declaration promotes the rights of all nations “small or big” in Iran and supports democracy, tolerance, and human rights.  One paragraph of the declaration says:

“With our diplomatic advisers we have surveyed the problems of the future. We shall seek the cooperation and active participation of all nations, large and small, whose peoples in heart and mind are dedicated, as are our own peoples, to the elimination of tyranny and slavery, oppression and intolerance. We will welcome them, as they may choose to come, into a world family of democratic nations.”[5]

Eventually, in January 22 of 1946, the Republic of Kurdistan was officially announced in Mahabad with the aim of autonomy for the Kurds and democracy for Iran, and it was declared by Qazi Muhammad who became the President of the Republic.

Few months later when the republic was still on its baby feet, the Soviet Union withdrew from Iran.  And that closed the sole window of the Kurds, from which, more or less, they were getting the shine of the sun.  As soon as the Soviet Union leaves, the republic is surrendered by the Iranian government and it was collapsed.  Ultimately, Qazi Muhammad was executed and the Kurdish baby (republic) could not become the man of power (state).

The Soviet Withdrawal from Iran:

The Soviet Union simply left Iran because of two reasons.  The first reason was the pressure of the USA on the Soviet to withdraw.  Truman, the president of the USA of the time, threatened to attack Iran with nuclear weapon if the Soviet doesn’t withdraw from Iran.[6]  The second reason was that Iran gave the Soviet Union an oil concession if it leaves Iran.  So, Iran basically told the Soviet Union oil for you and land for me.  Eventually the Soviet Union satisfied to leave Iran.  And the policies of Qawam Saltana, Prime Minister of Iran, were effective to satisfy the Soviet Union to leave.  Qawam Saltana gave the Soviets an oil concession because he was very afraid that one day the Kurdistan Republic would become a completely independent state and announces its independence from Iran. And we should remember that at the same time there was another republic in the Azerbaijan part of Iran, and the Soviets aimed to take that part of Azerbaijan and unite it with the Azerbaijan of the Soviet Union.[7]  Therefore, the Iranian government was very critical of the Soviet Union in Iran that the Soviet is a serious trouble for the unity of Iran.  The Iranian government took serious steps, therefore, to satisfy the USSR to leave Iran, and eventually it was satisfied and withdrew from Iran.

Why was the USSR Withdrawal important for the Collapse of the Kurdistan Republic?

As to some extent I mentioned above, the Kurds had relations only with the Soviet Union.  They, at the time of the republic, were not supported by any other powers.  The help of the USSR was also not sufficient for the Kurds.  However, more or less the Kurds had no other choice except to agree for what the Soviet was giving to them.  The republic was new, and it had some internal problems.  Some historians argue that the main causes of the collapse of the republic were more internal rather than external.  However, some other people say that the external problems were much more effective than the internal issues.  Our position here is not to take any side alone but to argue that even though both of the external and internal issues were significant, the internal issues were mostly related to the external issue of the withdrawal of the Soviet Union from Iran.  That is because if the Soviet Union did not withdraw from Iran, the republic would continually strengthen its relations with the Soviet Union.  And through these relations, the republic would eventually improve its economy and establish an officially organized professional army.  But when the USSR agreed to the oil concession that was given to it by Iran and withdrew from the country, all the relations of the republic closed too.  And we should remember that the Cold War was about to start at that time (second half of 1946).  Moreover, the USA and its allies did not help the republic despite of the fact that Qazi Muhammad asked them to help when the USSR withdrew.[8]  The US did not help the Kurds because it considered the leaders of the republic to be inspired by the Soviet Union, and they did not believe them while it is clear that the republic was not based on the Soviet Union ideology.  At the same time the western powers were affected by the Iranian and Turkish press not to support the Kurds in the area.  Moreover, Britain was in Iraq and Iraq had the Kurdish problem too.  Therefore, “Britain was trying to make Iraq and Iran close to each other and understand that they have a shared enemy and therefore should cooperate together to be united against the Kurds in Iran and Iraq”[9] Therefore, we can say that the republic became the victim of the Cold War ideologies, on the one hand, and the Kurds became victims of regional powers’ politics, on the other hand.[10]  At the same time, Iran was the main ally of the USA and offering help to the Kurds was against the interests of Iran, which was something that the USA ultimately did not want at the time.  So, we can say that the very beginnings of the Cold War left a very negative impact on the fate of the Kurds in Iran.

            The internal issue of tribes with the republic was also related to the Soviet Union.  Many Kurdish tribes in Iran did not defend the republic when the USSR left Iran because the tribes were basically against the power of the Soviet Union in the area, and they were not happy that the Kurdish republic was getting help from the Soviet Union.  They were reading the republic as a sign of the Soviet Union.  Wadie Jwaideh in his book, the Kurdish National Movement, argues that the Kurds had a historical harsh background with the Soviets.  He says that whenever the Soviets were fighting against the Turks and the Persians in the past, the Kurds were the first victims of the wars.  Therefore, he argues, some Kurdish tribes did not forget the harshness that they had gotten from the wars of the Soviet Union during history.[11]  Another factor that many tribal Kurds did not support the republic was a religious factor.  Wadie continues and says that because of the fact that most of the Kurds in Iran are Sunni Muslims, they did not support the non-Muslim Soviet Union, which they saw as an enemy of Muslims.[12]  But here we should also remember that Qazi Muhammad was himself a very effective religious leader, and he accepted help from the Soviet Union.  But that might be related to the failure of Qazi Muhammad in satisfying the Kurds and explain to them clearly the reasons why he accepts help from the non-Muslim Soviet Union at the time.  At the same time, it is clear that Qazi Muhammad did not have much time to execute his duties and pave the complete way to another stage for the Kurdistan Republic.  The USSR withdrew and all the doors were closed in front of Qazi Muhammad.  So, he did not have the chance to improve the republic and solve the internal tribal issue along with other issues that the republic had faced.

            A number of historians have argued that Qazi Muhammad had good plans in order to solve the issues of the republic.  One of the problems of the republic was that, as I mentioned above, the hater of the people to the Soviet Union resulted that the people particularly militarily were not supporting the republic.  And Qazi Muhammad had good plans in order to improve education and raise the sense of nationalism among the people and make the people have sense of loyalty to the republic.  “The two most significant ministries of the republic’s cabinet were the Ministry of Defense and the Ministry of Media.  The republic did not have the support of many tribes.  Therefore, the only thing that the republic had was its weak unorganized military and that was not enough for defending the republic against the Iranian forces”.  This is what Burzuwiy in his book, The Political Situation of Kurdistan (1880-1946), page 418, is mentioning while talking about the efforts of Qazi Muhammad in order to raise the support of the Kurdish tribes to the republic.  He continues and says that Qazi Muhammad had not have the chance to make good support for the republic while the Soviets withdrew from Iran and opened the gateway for the Iranian forces to surrender the center of the republic.[13]

More evidences about the efforts of Qazi Muhammad to solve the internal tribal issues are available.  For example, Dr. Afraisam Horami, in one of his works collecting the original documents from the politicians and important figures of the Soviet Union in that area shows an original document from Salumin, the General Consul of the Soviet Union in Baku, that Qazi Muhammad had visited them before announcing the republic to get help advising the Kurdish tribal men in order to support each other.  The General Consul narrates that “Qazi Muhammad had visited them in the name of a number of religious men from the area of Mahabad and around.  In his visitation, Qazi Muhammad had said that a number of Kurdish tribal men are illiterate and they are not united.  He has said there should be efforts working hard along with the help of the Soviet Union to improve education among the people in the Kurdish areas so that at the end people would understand and support the Kurd’s struggle.”[14]  These kinds of documents are evidences showing that Qazi Muhammad even before the republic was afraid of the disunity of the Kurds.  At the same time they show the patience of Qazi Muhammad towards the Kurdish tribal uneducated men who were not united.  So, our argument here is that Qazi Muhammad did not have enough time to solve his internal issues.  Otherwise, even before the republic he had plans to open the minds of the people through education.  And after the announcement of the republic, he did not have enough time to improve education and make people understand the aims of the republic.  If the Soviet Union did not withdraw, he would be able to ultimately get the support of the tribes.  He would be able to improve the society through education because he sent even the children of those tribal men, who were not supporting the republic, abroad to study.  Qazi Muhammad needed a long-term period to fully implement his plans and solve his internal issues under the umbrella of the Soviet Union.  However, the Soviet Union withdrew from Iran, and all the plans of Qazi Muhammad died.  So, despite of the fact that there were internal problems that the republic faced, the withdrawal of the Soviet Union from Iran disregarded all the plans of Qazi Muhammad to solve the problems.  Therefore, Qazi Muhammad did not have much time to solve the issues.  However, we should also see the fact that many critiques have taken place on the nature of organizing the ministries of the republic’s cabinet.  Abdullah Pishdary, who is closely aware of the events regarding the Kurdistan Republic, is raising the point that there has not been good coherence among the republic’s administrative organizations.  And he sees this as another cause that has pushed to the weakness of the republic.[15]

Another reason that is also related to the withdrawal of the Soviet Union was the economic situation of the republic.  As it was clear, the republic had an infant economy.  The only economic relations it had were with the Soviet Union.  As soon as the Soviet Union left Iran, the doors of economic relations of the republic were closed too.  The farmers and the civilians under the control of the Soviet Union were living under very bad economic conditions.[16]  We should also point to the fact that the Soviet Union even before the withdrawal did not sufficiently help to improve the economy of the republic but, more or less, the Soviet Union was the only door for the republic to go through.[17]  The Soviet left and that sole door was closed up too.  Therefore, this bad internal economic issue is also related to the withdrawal of the Soviet Union from Iran.

Some historians believe that the first step of the Cold War started from Iran.  And the first victims of the Cold War were the republics of Kurdistan and Azerbaijan.[18]  What is interesting is that the Kurdistan Republic was seen to be, like Azerbaijan Republic, an extension of communism and a sign of the Soviet Union in the area while the Kurdistan Republic was only getting help from the USSR.  It was not a communist ideological republic at all, but it was seen as a sign of communism.  That was one reason that the republic was not supported by the USA and its allies after the withdrawal of the USSR.  Therefore, the Kurdistan Republic became the victim between the socialist Soviet ideology and the capitalist American ideology in the very beginnings of the Cold War.

When the USSR withdrew from Iran, it did not leave anything to the Kurdistan Republic to defend itself.  And that was happened in a time that the USSR was sure that the Kurdistan Republic would be attacked by the Iranian government as soon as it leaves Iran.  So, this might be a clear sign that the Kurdistan Republic was not a communist ideological republic, as some people argue.  If the republic had a sign of communism ideology, the Soviet Union would at least offer sufficient military equipment and economic support to defend itself against the Iranian forces after the withdrawal.

Another reason that would support that most of the causes that led to the collapse of the republic were related to the USSR withdrawal from Iran is that the USSR withdrew and all the doors were opened to Iran to topple down the republics of Kurdistan and Azerbaijan.  There was no one after the Soviet Union to defend the Kurds except the Kurds themselves within no sufficient weapons.  And the collapse of the Azerbaijan Republic much more facilitated the collapse of the Kurdistan Republic too.

If the USSR did not withdraw from Iran, the Kurdistan Republic would have the chance to organize its army gradually.  But by the time of the withdrawal of the USSR, the Kurdistan Republic had not organized its army.  The republic was secured by tribal men.  Qazi Muhammad had good plans to professionally organize the military of the republic.  However, the USSR withdrawal did not let him continue doing reforms in military in a way to sufficiently secure the new established republic.  So, eventually the republic was toppled down and the Iranian government could regain the center of the republic, Mahabad, on December 15th of 1946.

When we analyze the collapse of the Kurdistan Republic, we should also understand the aims and interests of the USA in Iran, which directly affect the collapse of the republic.  The establishment of the republic did not at all see the interests of the USA in Iran at that time.  The USA was asking for the unity of Iran, on the one hand, and, on the other hand, it wanted the Soviet Union to leave the Persian Gulf.  The USA did not want the existence of the Soviet in the Persian Gulf any longer because that would ultimately hurt the US oil companies and the US interests in the area.  That becomes clear when we see just before the negotiations of Tehran Declaration started Cardel Hardil, the USA Foreign Minister speaks to Roosevelt in Tehran.  According to Mujtaba Burzuwiy, Cardel tells Roosevelt, “if we let the events go without any obstacles, the Soviet Union or Britain would step to some changes in Iran that would ultimately threaten the unity and sovereignty of Iran.  Our interests ask us to remove the USSR or any other power in the Gulf otherwise their existence there would threaten our oil companies in the Arabic countries and the area.[19]  That reason made the USA do whatever it could to push out the Soviet Union from Iran.  And ultimately, it put a lot of pressure on the Soviet and worked hard with Iran to satisfy the Soviet to leave.  And we have already said that the withdrawal of the Soviet means the end of the Kurdistan Republic.  Because of these pressures of the US, the west, and the oil concession by Iran, the United Soviet ultimately left Iran.  That is also another reason that the USA did not defend the Kurdistan Republic and refused offering any help it.

Conclusion:

We understand that there were serious internal reasons that had impacts on the collapse of the Kurdistan Republic in 1946, in Mahabad.  However, the internal issues were subject to be solved if the main door was not closed in front of Qazi Muhammad and other leaders of the republic.  That main door was the withdrawal of the Soviet Union from Iran.  There was no side for the Kurds to help except of the Soviet Union.  Imagine if one enters a house through the gateway to clean up the house.  Once he enters the first room inside the house, all the other doors are closed, and there are no keys to open the doors to enter other rooms inside to clean them.  At the same time, no one is ready to give him the keys through the windows and nowhere else.  The only place he would go back is the gateway so that the guard in the gateway would give him the keys so that he would be able to clean the house inside.  Once he is trying to find out the keys, the guard of the gateway suddenly closes up the gateway and leaves him inside without giving him the keys.  So, before he needed the keys, but now even he is prisoned and no one is offering help to free him.  Then, the police would easily come, catch him, and ultimately kill him under the excuse of robbing the house. The case of the Kurdistan Republic was the same.  Despite of the fact that there were internal issues, there were keys in the hands of the Soviet Union to give Qazi Muhammad to solve the internal issues.  However, the Soviet Union left Qazi Muhammad.  And as the result, the republic was collapsed on Dec 15 1947, and Qazi Muhammad was sentenced to death by Iran and was hanged in Chwarchira Square, Mahabad, on March 31, 1947.

References

Ali, Othman. “Some Research about the Kurdish Modern History.” Islamic Thought International Institute.  Translated into Kurdish by Baban J. Kamaran, 2010.

Burzuwiy, Mujtaba. “The Political Situation of Kurdistan (1880-1946).”  Mukirian Publishing Center. Mukiriian, 1999. Translated into Kurdish by Naznaz M. Qafer, Yusuf Kh. Chpan & Alipoor Soran, 2005.

David, McDowall. “A Modern History of the Kurds.” I.B.Tauris & Co Ltd. Revised edition. 2007.

Horami, Afrasiaw. “The Events of Eastern Kurdistan According to some Original Documents from Shurawi (1945-47).”  University of Sulaimani. 2006.

Kilic, Ali. “The State of the Republic of Kurdistan.” Jan, 2009: Retrieved from: http://www.pen-kurd.org/englizi/ali-kilic/The-State-of-the-Republic-of-Kurdistan.pdf

Majid Nawzad, Khidr Sarmodi. “Republic of Kurdistan in Mahabad- 1946.” From the thought and awareness school published works. Sulaimanya, 2004.

Makhdum, Mansur. “The Importance of Kurds and Kurdistan in the Historical Stages of Iran until the Afsharis.”  Translated into Kurdish by Muradi Rafaat. KRG Misitry of Culture.

Nazhadian, Hiwa. “The Kurdish Republic of Mahabad 1946.” VOK Radio. 2006. Retrieved from:http://www.vokradio.com/content/view/87/47/

Reza, Enayatollah. “Arran, the real name of the republic of Azerbaijan.” An Interview with Dr. Enayatollah Reza. Iran Chamber Society. 2015. Retrieved from:
http://www.iranchamber.com/geography/articles/arran_real_azerbaijan.php

“Tehran Declaration of 1943.” Original document. Retrieved from:http://millercenter.org/president/fdroosevelt/speeches/speech-3817

Wadie, Jwaideh. “The Kurdish National Movement.” P. 258. Syacuse University Press, 20116.
Retrieved from: http://srush90.blogspot.com.tr/2011/06/what-were-causes-of-collapsing-kurdish.html

[1] Simko Shikak: timeline of his life, from Wikipedia

[2] Othman Ali. Some Research about the Kurdish Modern History. P, 319

[3] Othman Ali. Some Research about the Kurdish Modern History. P, 319

[4] Othman Ali. Some Research about the Kurdish Modern History. P, 344

[5] Tehran Declaration of 1943. Original Document. Retrieved from: http://millercenter.org/president/fdroosevelt/speeches/speech-3817

[6] Arran, the real name of the republic of Azerbaijan. An Interview with Dr. Enayatollah Reza by Iran Chamber Society. 2015

[7] Arran, the real name of the republic of Azerbaijan. An Interview with Dr. Enayatollah Reza by Iran Chamber Society. 2015

[8] Othman  Ali. Some Research about the Kurdish Modern History. P, 407

[9] Othman Ali. Some Research about the Kurdish Modern History. P, 407

[10] Othman  Ali. Some Research about the Kurdish Modern History. P, 403

[11] Jwaideh Wadie. “The Kurdish National Movement.” P. 258

[12] Jwaideh Wadie. “The Kurdish National Movement.” P. 258

[13] Burzuwiy, Mujtaba. The Political Situation of Kurdistan (1880-1946). P. 418

[14] Afrasiaw Horami. The Events of Eastern Kurdistan According to some Original Documents from Shurawi (1945-47). P. 26

[15] Burzuwiy, Mujtaba. The Political Situation of Kurdistan (1880-1946). P. 418

[16] Othman Ali. Some Research about the Kurdish Modern History. P, 425

[17] Othman Ali. Some Research about the Kurdish Modern History. P, 491-492

[18] Othman Ali. Some Research about the Kurdish Modern History. P, 403

[19] Burzuwiy, Mujtaba. The Political Situation of Kurdistan (1880-1946). P. 452

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This entry was posted on 2016-05-04 by in News Articles.
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