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List of languages by number of native speakers

Primary_Human_Language_Families_Map

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

For various estimates of the total speakers of the top languages, see List of languages by total number of speakers, Current distribution of human language families

Half of the world’s population speaks the 13 most populous languages. The following table lists the languages of the world with the largest number of native speakers as estimated by the SwedishNationalencyklopedin (2007, 2010).

Since the distinction of language and dialect is often arbitrary, some mutually intelligible idioms with separate national standards or self-identification have been unified, including Indonesian and Malay;Croatian, Bosnian, and Serbian; etc., but not Standard Hindi and Urdu.

For a list of languages with the smallest numbers of native speakers, see Lists of endangered languages.

Nationalencyklopedin

The following table contains the top 100 languages by estimated number of speakers in the 2007 edition of Nationalencyklopedin. As census methods in different countries vary to a considerable extent, and some countries do not record language in their censuses, any list of languages by native speakers, or total speakers, is based on estimates. Updated estimates from 2010 are also provided.[1]

Hindustani has been divided into the sociolinguistic units of Hindi and Urdu, while a number of northern Indian languages have been partially merged into “Hindi”, reflecting self-identity reported in the Indian census. This Hindi is thus not a language in the linguistic sense.

Note: Languages with an asterisk (*) have been updated with figures from the 2010 edition of the Nationalencyklopedin.

Language Native name Native speakers (millions)  % of world population Mainly spoken in Notes
Mandarin 官話 / 官话 955* 14.4% China, Taiwan, Singapore, and Malaysia Part of Chinese language family
Spanish Español 405* 6.15% Spain, Mexico, United States, Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Uruguay, Venezuela, Equatorial Guinea, and Western Sahara. See List of countries where Spanish is an official language Partially mutually intelligible withPortuguese[2][3][4]
English 360* 5.43% United Kingdom, United States, Canada, Australia, Ireland and New Zealand. See List of countries where English is an official language
Hindi हिन्दी 310* 4.70% India, Nepal, and Fiji Part of Hindi languages family. Includes approx. 100 million speakers of other Hindi languages not counted below. Mutually intelligible with Urdu. Schedule 8official language of India.
Arabic العربيَّة 295* 4.43% Arab League. See List of countries where Arabic is an official language. Arabic also is a liturgical language of 1.6 billion Muslims.[5][6] The Arabic language contains many different dialects. Many are not mutually intelligible. See Varieties of Arabic
Portuguese Português 215* 3.27% Portugal, Brazil, Angola, Cape Verde, Mozambique, São Tomé and Príncipe, Guinea-Bissau, Timor-Leste, and Macau. See List of countries where Portuguese is an official language Partially mutually intelligible withSpanish[2][3][4]
Bengali বাংলা 205* 3.11% Bangladesh, India (West Bengal,Tripura, Assam)
Russian Русский 155* 2.33% Russia, Ukraine, and the Commonwealth of Independent States. See List of countries where Russian is an official language. Partially mutually intelligible withUkrainian[7] and Belarusian.[7]
Japanese 日本語 125* 1.90% Japan
Punjabi ਪੰਜਾਬੀ
پنجابی
102* 1.44% India, Pakistan (Punjab region) Schedule 8 official language of India.
German Deutsch 89* 1.39% Germany, Austria, Belgium (EupenMalmedy), Luxembourg, Liechtenstein, Switzerland, Italy (South Tyrol). SeeList of countries where German is an official language. Wide dialect variety, within which many dialects are not mutually intelligible with the standard language.
Javanese Basa Jawa 82 1.25% Indonesia (Java) Javanese is the largest languagewithout an official status anywhere (and thus the largest minority language in the world), despite being used throughout Southeast Asia andSuriname. In terms of native speakers, Javanese is also more widely spoken than Indonesia’s sole official language, Bahasa Indonesia.
Wu 吳語 / 吴语 80 1.20% China (Zhejiang, Shanghai, southernJiangsu) Part of Chinese language family
Malay/Indonesian Bahasa Melayu
Bahasa Indonesia
77 1.16% Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, Singapore
Telugu తెలుగు 76 1.15% India (Andhra Pradesh, Telangana,Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Puducherry) Schedule 8 official language of India.
Vietnamese Tiếng Việt 76 1.14% Vietnam
Korean 한국어
조선말
76 1.14% North Korea, South Korea
French Français 74 1.12% France and its territories, Canada, Belgium, Switzerland, Haiti, Luxembourg, Algeria, Central African Republic and other Francophoniemember states. See List of countries where French is an official language
Marathi मराठी 73 1.10% India (Maharashtra, Goa, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh,Gujarat) Schedule 8 official language of India.
Tamil தமிழ் 70 1.06% India (Tamil Nadu, Karnataka,Puducherry), Sri Lanka, Singapore, Malaysia, Mauritius Schedule 8 official language of India.
Urdu اُردُو 66 0.99% India, Pakistan Mutually intelligible with Hindi. Schedule 8 official language of India.
Persian فارسی 65 0.99% Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan
Turkish Türkçe 63 0.95% Turkey, Northern Cyprus Partially mutually intelligible with Azerbaijani
Italian Italiano 59 0.90% Italy, Switzerland, San Marino
Cantonese 粵語 / 粤语 59 0.89% Mainland China (Guangdong (Canton) and southern Guangxi), Hong Kong, Macau, Singapore, Malaysia, and Brunei Part of Chinese language family
Thai ภาษาไทย 56 0.85% Thailand
Gujarati ગુજરાતી 49 0.74% India (Gujarat, Daman and Diu, Dadra and Nagar Haveli) Schedule 8 official language of India.
Jin 晉語 / 晋语 48 0.72% China (Shanxi, parts of Inner Mongolia, Hebei, Henan, Shaanxi) Part of Chinese language family
Min Nan 閩南語 / 闽南语 47 0.71% Mainland China (Fujian, Guangdong, and Hainan), Taiwan, Singapore, Malaysia, and Brunei Part of Chinese language family
Polish Polski 40 0.61% Poland
Pashto پښتو 39 0.58% Afghanistan, Pakistan
Kannada ಕನ್ನಡ 38 0.58% India (Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra) Schedule 8 official language of India.
Xiang 湘語 / 湘语 38 0.58% China (Hunan) Part of Chinese language family
Malayalam മലയാളം 38 0.57% India (Kerala, Lakshadweep, Mahé) Schedule 8 official language of India.
Sundanese Aksara Sunda.png 38 0.57% Indonesia (Java) Sundanese is the second largest language (after Javanese) without anofficial status anywhere (not counting Chinese languages such as Wu, Yue, Jin, Min Nan, Xiang).
Hausa هَرْشَن هَوْسَ 34 0.52% Nigeria
Oriya ଓଡ଼ିଆ 33 0.50% India (Odisha) Schedule 8 official language of India.
Burmese မြန်မာစာ 33 0.50% Burma
Hakka 客家話 / 客家话 31 0.46% China (Southern) Part of Chinese language family
Ukrainian українська мова 30 0.46% Ukraine Partially mutually intelligible withRussian[7] and Belarusian.[7]
Bhojpuri भोजपुरी 29 0.43% India (Bihar) Part of Bihari. This is only a fraction of the speakers; the others are counted under Hindi above.
Tagalog Wikang Tagalog 28 0.42% Philippines
Yoruba Èdè Yorùbá 28 0.42% Nigeria, Benin, Togo
Maithili मैथिली, মৈথিলী 27 0.41% India (Bihar), Nepal Part of Bihari. This is only a fraction of the speakers; the others are counted under Hindi above. Schedule 8 official language of India.
Swahili Kiswahili 26 0.39% Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda
Uzbek Oʻzbek
Ўзбек
اوزبیک
26 0.39% Uzbekistan
Sindhi سنڌي
सिन्धी
Sindhi
26 0.39% India, Pakistan (Sindh) Schedule 8 official language of India.
Amharic አማርኛ 25 0.37% Ethiopia
Fula Fulfulde 24 0.37% West and Central Africa, from Senegalto Sudan
Romanian Română 24 0.37% Romania, Moldova
Oromo Afaan Oromo 24 0.36% Ethiopia, Kenya
Igbo Asụsụ Igbo 24 0.36% Nigeria
Azerbaijani Azərbaycan 23 0.34% Azerbaijan, Iran Partially mutually intelligible with Turkish
Awadhi अवधी 22 0.33% India (Uttar Pradesh) Part of Hindi languages family. This is only a fraction of the speakers; the others are counted under Hindiabove.
Gan 贛語 / 赣语 22 0.33% China (Jiangxi) Part of Chinese language family
Cebuano Binisaya 21 0.32% Philippines (Central and Southern)
Dutch Nederlands
Vlaams
21 0.32% Netherlands, Dutch Caribbean islands, Belgium (Flanders, Brussels), Suriname Highly mutually intelligible withAfrikaans, a daughter language of Dutch spoken primarily in South Africa and Namibia
Kurdish كوردی 21 0.31% Kurdistan” (Turkey, Iran, Iraq, Syria)
Serbo-Croatian Srpskohrvatski
hrvatskosrpski
српскохрватски
хрватскосрпски
19 0.28% Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia, Montenegro, Macedonia, Kosovo
Malagasy Malagasy 18 0.28% Madagascar
Saraiki سرائیکی 17 0.26% Pakistan (Sindh)
Nepali नेपाली 17 0.25% Nepal, India (Sikkim, Darjeeling,Assam), Bhutan, Myanmar Schedule 8 official language of India.
Sinhalese සිංහල 16 0.25% Sri Lanka
Chittagonian টগাঁইয়া বুলি 16 0.24% Bangladesh (Chittagong)
Zhuang Vahcuengh
话壮
16 0.24% China (Guangxi) Actually 13 or more languages; related to Thai, not part of Chinese language family.
Khmer ភាសាខ្មែរ 16 0.24% Cambodia
Assamese অসমীয়া 15 0.23% India Assam (India) Schedule 8 official language of India.
Madurese Madhura 15 0.23% Indonesia ( Madura, and Java)
Somali Af-Soomaali 15 0.22% Somalia, Ethiopia, Kenya, Dijibouti, Yemen
Marwari मारवाड़ी 14 0.21% India, Pakistan (Rajasthan), Nepal This is only a fraction of the speakers; the others are counted under Hindi above.
Magahi मगही 14 0.21% India (Bihar) Part of Bihari
Haryanvi हरियाणवी 14 0.21% India (Haryana) Part of Hindi languages family
Hungarian Magyar 13 0.19% Hungary
Chhattisgarhi छत्तीसगढ़ी 12 0.19% India (Chhattisgarh) Part of Hindi languages family. This is only a fraction of the speakers; the others are counted under Hindiabove.
Greek ελληνικά 12 0.18% Greece, Cyprus
Chewa Nyanja 12 0.17% Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia, Zimbabwe
Deccan دکنی 11 0.17% India (Deccan) Part of Urdu
Akan Twi
Fante
11 0.17% Ghana, Ivory Coast
Kazakh Qazaqşa
Қазақша
قازاق ٴتىلى;
11 0.17% Kazakhstan
Min Bei 閩北語 / 闽北语 10.9 0.16% China (Fujian) Part of Chinese language family
Sylheti ছিলটী 10.7 0.16% Bangladesh, India
Zulu isiZulu 10.4 0.16% South Africa
Czech Čeština 10.0 0.15% Czech Republic
Kinyarwanda Ikinyarwanda 9.8 0.15% Rwanda Part of Rwanda-Rundi
Dhundhari 9.6 0.15% India (Rajasthan)
Haitian Creole Kreyòl Ayisyen 9.6 0.15% Haiti
Min Dong 閩東語 / 闽东语 9.5 0.14% China (Fujian) Part of Chinese language family
Ilokano 9.1 0.14% Philippines (Luzon)
Quechua 8.9 0.13% Peru, Bolivia A language family, not a language
Kirundi 8.8 0.13% Burundi, Uganda Part of Rwanda-Rundi
Swedish 8.7 0.13% Sweden, Finland
Hmong 8.4 0.13% Laos A language family, not a language
Shona 8.3 0.13% Zimbabwe
Uyghur ئۇيغۇرچە 8.2 0.12% China (Xinjiang)
Hiligaynon 8.2 0.12% Philippines (Western Visayas)
Mossi 7.6 0.11% Burkina Faso
Xhosa 7.6 0.11% South Africa
Belarusian беларусы 7.6 0.11% Belarus Only half this many use it as their home language. Partially mutually intelligible with Russian[7] andUkrainian.[7]
Balochi بلوچی 7.6 0.11% Iran, Pakistan (Balochistan)
Konkani कोंकणी
ಕೊಂಕಣಿ
7.4 0.11% India (Goa, Karnataka, Maharashtra) Schedule 8 official language of India.
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This entry was posted on 2010-01-22 by in News Articles.
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